Notable Works in Auditing and Security

SCRF is crowd-sourcing a list of key readings in each forum category to point readers to notable works and foundational research. Please comment in this thread with links to seminal research that could form part of an introductory graduate seminar in this category.

Please format your additions using the template below:

## [Category Name]

### [Full Paper Title]

- **Source:** <[Link]>
- **Authors:** [Author 1, Author 2, etc.]
- **Description:** [One sentence description of the work]
- **Relevance:** [Once sentence explaining the special relevance of this work]
- **Citation:** [Citation and abstract in plaintext]
- **Tags:** [Relevant forum tags, if any]

As with every post in SCRF, a discussion is highly encouraged, please be prepared to explain why your link should be added to the canonical list.

We are also offering a bounty for all successful additions.

Notable Works in Auditing and Security

The Security Reference Architecture for Blockchains: Towards a Standardized Model for Studying Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Defenses

  • Source:
  • Authors: Ivan Homoliak, Sarad Venugopalan, Daniël Reijsbergen, Qingze Hum, Richard Schumi, Pawel Szalachowski
  • Description: This paper proposes a 4-layer security reference architecture for blockchains and identifies known threats, countermeasures, and dependencies at each layer
  • Relevance: This paper is relevant because it is one of the first contributing towards the standardization of security threat analysis in the blockchain space
  • Citation: I. Homoliak, S. Venugopalan, D. Reijsbergen, Q. Hum, R. Schumi and P. Szalachowski, “The Security Reference Architecture for Blockchains: Toward a Standardized Model for Studying Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Defenses,” in IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 341-390, Firstquarter 2021, doi: 10.1109/COMST.2020.3033665.

A Survey on Ethereum Systems Security: Vulnerabilities, Attacks, and Defenses

  • Source:
  • Authors: Huashan Chen, Marcus Pendleton, Laurent Njilla, Shouhuai Xu
  • Description: This paper provides a holistic survey of Ethereum security, stratifying vulnerabilities, attacks, and defenses
  • Relevance: This paper is relevant because it is one of the first to investigate the security issues across different layers of the Ethereum architecture

A Survey on the Security of Blockchain Systems

  • Source:
  • Authors: Xiaoqi Li, Peng Jiang, Ting Chen, Xiapu Luo, Qiaoyan Wen
  • Description: This paper performs a high-level review of blockchain security as a whole.
  • Relevance: This paper is relevant because it covers attacks in a wide time range (2009 to 2017)

246 Findings From our Smart Contract Audits: An Executive Summary

Ethereum Smart Contract Security Best Practices

  • Source:
  • Authors: Consensys
  • Description: This post provides key security considerations when developing Ethereum smart contracts
  • Relevance: This post is relevant because it is a state-of-the-art catalog, providing a reference point for educating developers and auditors

List of Ethereum Smart Contracts Post-Mortems


I’m might be missing some context here. Can you please help me understand what this discussion should be about?

1 Like

this is not a “discussion” post. this is a post to accumulate research in the area for people to contribute to.

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This article is in Communications of the ACM. It’s discusses issues surrounding responsible vulnerability disclosure and best practices in cryptocurrencies


Thanks @socrates1024 We will take a look and will consider its inclusion. In the meantime, feel free to provide a summary of the paper so others can better familiarize themselves with the work and discuss it further.


I came across with this paper which I think is worth reading:
TEETHER: Gnawing at Ethereum to Automatically Exploit Smart Contracts


@tina1998612 That is awesome, thanks for pointing out this paper. Out of curiosity, do you know how much does the authors’ tool differ from other tools that do symbolic execution (e.g., mythril), and what is its false-positive rate?


I think this might be useful to some researchers as well. It’s slightly out of date but already is one of the most comprehensive lists I’ve seen. Contributions are welcomed though :)

The Blockchain Security Database is an open-source database created by ConsenSys Diligence to act as a repository of security information organized by projects. The database contains a catalog of blockchain projects with details pertaining to their security including audits, bounties, and security contacts.


Should we add a paper a bit more generic about how communities outside cryptocurrencies approach Audits? Something like an SOK or a comprehensive study of the audits in practice.


We have discussed this, and we think it is more important to focus on the crypto and blockchain space in order to not get too weighed down by the effectively unlimited variations on audit types.

Everyone is not subject to Sarbanes-Oxley or GDPR audit expectations, so the potential avenues that could detract from the focus of the forum are near unlimited. In that aspect, it is more effective to focus on this space for now. That might be something we can do in the future when the forum has more content from which to draw comparisons.


Hi! Collected al researches that I was able to find here:

In Security and Tools sections


Here’s similar topic on zhihu.
Maybe helpful.